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31 août 2010 2 31 /08 /août /2010 22:58








1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment

Vietnam War

On the 1 February 1963, the Army began to gather helicopters into the 11th Air Assault Division to test the airmobile concept. The 31st Transportation Company was re-designated as the 227th Assault Helicopter Battalion. In June 1965, the 11th Air Assault was joined with the 2nd Infantry Division. Shortly thereafter, the division exchanged colors with the 1st Cavalry Division.

On 1 August 1965, the 1st Cavalry Division was sent to Vietnam. The battalion participated in 14 campaigns and received seven decorations during its 7 years of duty in Vietnam.

Upon return from Vietnam, the 227th Aviation Battalion was inactivated on 19 November 1974 at Fort Hood, Texas. After a brief reactivation from 21 May 1978 until 30 September 1983, it was re-designated as 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, the first divisional Apache Attack Helicopter Battalion to be formed. Upon re-designation, the 1-227th underwent an intensive 6-month unit training program and began to training for combat operations.

The Gulf War & the 1990s

On 29 September 1990, the battalion deployed overseas to Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, where the unit postured for combat in Operation Desert Shield. On 25 February 1991, with the onset of Operation Desert Storm, the battalion conducted a raid as a part of the 1st Cavalry Division's deception plan to throw Iraqi forces off guard.

The battalion would serve as the vanguard of the division's movement north to cut off retreating an Iraqi Republican Guard Division at Basra. On 7 March 1991, the battalion would return as part of the advance party back to Fort Hood, Texas.

On 2 June 1998, after years of testing and preparation, 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment began to field the most advanced attack helicopter ever built, the AH-64 Apache "Longbow".

Global War on Terror

With the onset of Operation Enduring Freedom, the 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, on 14 February 2003, arrived at Camp Udari, Kuwait, and was attached to Task Force 11th Aviation Regiment operating under the command of the U.S. Army V Corps.

 In the early hours of 24 March 2003, Apache Longbows of the 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation, 1st Cavalry Division, engaged units of Iraq's Republican Guard Medina Division between the cities of Karbala and Al Hilah, about 96 kilometers (60 miles) south of Baghdad. On 21 May 2003, 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment redeployed to Fort Hood.


As a part of the Army's transformation towards a modular force, the 1-227th Aviation was inactivated along with the rest of the Aviation Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood on 26 May 2005.


It was concurrently reorganized and reactivated assigned to the Air Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, a reorganized and redesignated modular divisional aviation brigade.


The Battalion returned in 2006 from another 15 month deployment to Iraq at Camp Taji in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08.







1st Cavalry Division AH-64D Longbow Apache Pilot 
Receives Distinguished Service Cross


 Army Chief Warrant Officer 3 Zachary Johnson (right), a pilot with 4th Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, gets pinned with the Distinguished Flying Cross by Army Maj. Gen. Joseph F. Fil Jr., 1st Cavalry Division’s commander, at the Fort Hood Catering and Conference Center on Jan. 28, 2008. Johnson, a Nampa, Idaho, native, was rewarded for his leadership and skills during a large battle in Najaf, Iraq, Jan. 28, 2007. Photo by Sgt. Nicole Kojetin, USA



FORT HOOD - Brig. Gen. (P) Vincent Brooks, the commanding general of the 1st Cavalry Division, presents the Silver Star, the nation's third-highest award for valor, to the parents of Capt. Mark Resh and Chief Warrant Officer 3 Cornell Chao, both Apache pilots with the division's 4th Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade, during a ceremony held at Fort Hood's Cooper Field March 26. Chao's stepfather Glen Crowl and mother Jasmine Crowl from Orange City, Calif., are pictured on the left and Resh's father Charlie Resh and mother Carol Resh, from Fogelsville, Va., are pictured on the right.
Photo by Spc. Jeffrey Ledesma, 1st Cavalry Division Public Affairs
March 31, 2008


The AH-64D Longbow Apache is a remanufactured and upgraded version of the AH-64A Apache attack helicopter. The primary modifications to the Apache are the addition of a millimeter-wave Fire Control Radar (FCR) target acquisition system, the fire-and-forget Longbow Hellfire air-to-ground missile, updated T700-GE-701C engines, and a fully-integrated cockpit. In addition, the aircraft receives improved survivability, communications, and navigation capabilities. Most existing capabilities of the AH-64A Apache are retained.

The AH-64D is being fielded in two configurations. The full-up AH-64D includes all of the improvements listed above. In addition, a version of the AH-64D [formerly designated the AH-64C] without the FCR will be fielded. This version will not receive the new Radar Frequency Interferometer (RFI) or the improved engines, but will retain the other Longbow modifications.

The AH-64D without FCR is capable of launching the Longbow Hellfire missile. Boeing delivered the first remanufactured Longbow Apache in March 1997. A total of 501 AH-64A Apaches are to be upgraded to the AH-64D configuration, 227 of which will be equipped with the FCR.

Transportability requirements were initially identified in the ORD and further defined in the AH-64D System Specification. Both configurations of the AH-64D, including any removed items and appropriate PGSE, shall be capable of being transported aboard C-141B, C-5A, or C-17 aircraft.

The aircraft shall also be capable of being transported and hangar stored below decks in the landing platform helicopter (LPH) type carrier, Fast SeaLift ships, Roll-on/Roll-off, LASH, SEABEE ships, and Military Sealift Command (MSC) dry cargo ships. Additionally, the aircraft shall be transportable by military M-270A1 trailer and commercial "Air-Ride" trailer or equivalent.

 For aerial recovery, the AH-64D with MMA will be externally transportable by CH-47D aircraft using the Unit Maintenance Aerial Recovery Kit. Two AH-64D plus one FCR aircraft will be transportable by C-141, six AH-64Ds (with a minimum of three FCR mission kits) are transportable by C-5, and three AH-64Ds and three FCR mission kits are transportable by C-17.

During Army operational testing in 1995, all six Longbow Apache prototypes competed against standard AH-64A Apaches. The threat array developed to test the combat capabilities of the two Apache designs was a postulated 2004 lethal and digitized force consisting of heavy armor, air defense and countermeasures. The tests clearly demonstrated that Longbow Apaches:

Are 400 percent more lethal (hitting more targets) than the AH-64A, already the most capable and advanced armed helicopter in the world to enter service.

Are 720 percent more survivable than the AH-64A.

Meet or exceed Army requirements for both target engagement range and for probability of acquiring a seleted target. The specific requirements and results are classified.

Easily can hit moving and stationary tanks on an obscured, dirty battlefield from a range of more than 7 kilometers, when optical systems are rendered ineffective.

Can use either its Target Acquisition Designation Sight or fire control radar as a targeting sight, offering increased battlefield flexibility.

Have the ability to initiate the radar scan, detect and classify more than 128 targets, prioritize the 16 most dangerous targets, transmit the information to other aircraft, and initiate a precision attack -- all in 30 seconds or less.

Require one third less maintenance man hours (3.4) per flight hour than the requirement.

Are able to fly 91 percent of the time -- 11 percent more than the requirement.

One issue uncovered during the Initial Operational Test that required follow-on testing involved the method of employment of the Longbow Hellfire missile. During the force-on-force phase, Longbow flight crews frequently elected to override the system's automatic mode selection logic and fire missiles from a masked position.

This powerful technique can significantly increase the helicopter's survivability, but has not been validated with live missile firings during developmental or operational testing. DOT&E worked with the Army to develop a test plan that will confirm system performance using this firing technique. This test program will include computer simulation of the missile's target acquisition and fly-out as well as live missile firings at moving armored vehicles. 

Results of recent combat deployments and training exercises confirm the results of the 1995 IOT&E assessment for the Longbow Apache helicopter - the AH-64D helicopter provides effective air-to-ground combat power. The Army afteraction reports from the Iraqi conflict conclude that the Longbow Apache aircraft survives, protects the crew, and can be quickly repaired and returned to combat. Still, improvements to the Apache aircraft and training devices could enhance the aircraft's effectiveness.

 The Army should consider accelerating the procurement and fielding of M-TADS to enable target identification at standoff ranges. Additionally, the Army should incorporate "running/diving fire" engagement tactics, techniques, and procedures, as well as dynamic engagements during peacetime training. This training would be especially beneficial in the Longbow qualification training at Fort Rucker, Alabama, and during unit aerial gunnery training. 



















AH-64  Apache Multi-Mission Configurations

Primary Mission

Starboard Wing

M230 Gun

Port Wing

Rate of Climb



4 Hellfire

320 rds 30mm

4 Hellfire

1450 fpm

1.8 hours

(Covering force)

4 Hellfire
19 FFAR *

1200 rds 30mm

4 Hellfire
19 FFAR *

860 fpm

2.5 hours


8 Hellfire

1200 rds 30mm

8 Hellfire

990 fpm

2.5 hours

(Airmobile escort)

38 FFAR *

1200 rds 30mm

38 FFAR *

780 fpm

2.5 hours

* FFAR = 70mm (2.75 inch) Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets








Contractors Boeing McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems(Mesa, AZ)
General Electric (Lynn, MA)
Martin Marietta (Orlando, FL)
Propulsion Two T700-GE-701Cs  
Crew Two  
  AH-64A AH-64D
Length 58.17 ft (17.73 m) 58.17 ft (17.73 m)
Height 15.24 ft (4.64 m) 13.30 ft (4.05 m)
Wing Span 17.15 ft (5.227 m) 17.15 ft (5.227 m)
Primary Mission Gross Weight 15,075 lb (6838 kg)
11,800 pounds Empty
16,027 lb (7270 kg) Lot 1 Weight
Hover In-Ground Effect (MRP) 15,895 ft (4845 m)
[Standard Day]
14,845 ft (4525 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15C]
14,650 ft (4465 m)
[Standard Day]
13,350 ft (4068 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15 C]
Hover Out-of-Ground Effect (MRP) 12,685 ft (3866 m)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
11,215 ft (3418 m)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
10,520 ft (3206 m)
[Standard Day]
9,050 ft (2759 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15 C]
Vertical Rate of Climb (MRP) 2,175 fpm (663 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
2,050 fpm (625 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
1,775 fpm (541 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
1,595 fpm (486 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Maximum Rate of Climb (IRP) 2,915 fpm (889 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
2,890 fpm (881 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
2,635 fpm (803 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
2,600 fpm (793 mpm)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Maximum Level Flight Speed 150 kt (279 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
153 kt (284 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
147 kt (273 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
149 kt (276 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Cruise Speed (MCP) 150 kt (279 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
153 kt (284 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
147 kt (273 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
149 kt (276 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]
Range 400 km - internal fuel
1,900 km - internal and external fuel
Mission Equipment Target Acquisition and Designation System /
Pilot Night Vision System
Reliability The general objective of aircraft readiness is to achieve 75% Mission Capable.  













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